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The Congregation owes it’s foundation to Abbot Pier Francesco Casaretto, a Cassinese monk of S. Maria del Monte at Cesena. The 23rd January 1843, at the request of his Superiors, he started a monastery at Pegli (Genova), establishing as the basis of its observance the return to a more perfect community life. In 1850 Pius IX entrusted to him the monastery of S. Scholastica at Subiaco. With this, on 28 May 1851, he established the “Subicao Province” of the Cassinese Congregation. This Province, after the aggregation or direct foundation of other monasteries (including some outside Italy) was established as the “Cassinese Congregation of the Primitive Observance”, on an experimental basis in 1867 and more fully in 1872. After the death of the founder (1878), in 1880 its juridical nature was finally established. With the updating wished by the Second Vatican Council the Congregation introduced two principles into its proper legislation – Pluralism of observance at the level of each monastery and each of the 10 Provinces, and Subsidiarity at the level of its organs of government, required by the very fact of its international nature.